The Urban Regeneration Project “F1963”
The Lecture “Urban Renewal from Participation to Activism” by Armelle Tardiveau introduced how to create and design a public area where citizens can be invited to enjoy with the protection of the history, culture, and environment of the site or city using the example of urban regeneration project Île de Nantes (fig.1).
The key points of the Île de Nantes project could be
- To protect the memory of the site and the abandoned industrial heritage rather than demolition
- To encourage the diverse activities people can participate and enjoy
- To connect the man-made island and other side of the city
- To apply ecological and artistic concept
- To develop the city and local economy
As the increase of the awareness about the environmental issue such as global warming and climate change, the position of renovating an old building or heritage is becoming bigger in architectural society.
I am interested in the industrial heritage renovation project. Therefore, I researched other case of the urban renovation project, I will introduce the case of my country, South Korea.
From ‘Kiswire Factory’ to Multicultural Complex ‘F1963’ in Busan, South Korea
Kiswire’s first factory manufacturing wires was established in 1963 and closed in 2008 (F1963, n.d.) (fig.2). The factory was no longer used as a factory, it was empty. In 2014, The Kiswire reopened the part of the building as a Kiswire centre which shows the history of the company. The city of Busan was looking for a place for the Busan Biennale, and then the part of the factory was used as an exhibition hall for the Busan Biennale Special Exhibition in 2014. The training centre of Kiswire’s headquarter was built next to the factory, Kiswire started to figure out a way of reusing the whole building of the old factory in 2016. Then, in the wake of the Busan Biennale in 2014, Busan City once again requested to use it as a main exhibition hall for the 2016 Busan Biennale (fig.4), and Kiswire signed a contract to renovate the factory as a complex cultural space for citizens in the cooperation with Busan City and to offer it as the place for the Biennale for 20 years in free (Yonhap News, 2016). With the cooperation of Busan City and Kiswire, the factory was reborn as the current F1963. After the biennale, F1963 was loved by many citizens and became a hot place in Busan (Eom, Yoon and An, 2021). F1963 wins Grand Prize (Prime Minister Awards) at the Good Place Awards In 2018 (F1963, n.d.).
F1963 currently consists of an exhibition hall, cafe, restaurant, library, bookstore, and open public square, and the exhibition hall (fig.3 and 5) is usually used as a space for exhibiting or holding concerts by local artists, and it is used as the main exhibition hall for the Busan Biennale in the Biennale period (F1963, n.d.). Concerts for citizens are often held in the open public square and used as various events (F1963, n.d.).
If you look at some details, the main form and structure have been kept almost fully with repairs, the façade is maintained using blue expanded metals (fig.6). The architect used wires for the interior space, which had huge changes for a new function, to highlight the memory of the manufacturing history (Eom, Yoon and An, 2021).
The space, where a massive crane used to be, has been transformed into a bookshop by adding steel posts to support newly added ceilings and other elements (Oh and Yoo, 2019) (fig.7).
The part of the middle of the factory ceiling was demolished to make open space (fig.8), it became an open public square for diverse cultural events (Oh and Yoo, 2019).
In 2020, 600 thousand people visited despite the travel restriction in the Pandemic situation by Corona Virus, there were 480 thousand visitors until September 2021 (Ko, 2021). The Île de Nantes project and F1963 show how well-regenerated projects can be attractive places to people with achieving a sustainability as well.
Abandoned buildings are no longer useless and unfunctional, but they can be very attractive places for bringing tourists and visitors. It also can settle into local people’s lives.
Eom, J., Yoon, S. and An, D. (2021) The sustainability of regenerative café utilizing idle industrial facilities in south korea, Sustainability 2021, 13(9).
F1963 (n.d.) Available at: http://www.f1963.org/en/?c=about&s=1 (Accessed: 17 October 2022).
Younhap News (2016) 부산비엔날레 열린 고려제강 폐공장 20년 무상 제공, Available at: https://www.yna.co.kr/view/AKR20161228051100051?input=1195m (Accessed: 17 October 2022).
Ko, S.H. (2021) F1963, 폐공장이 ‘핫플’로…“옛것과 새것의 조화·창의적 재해석”. Heraldcorp, [online]
Available at: http://news.heraldcorp.com/view.php?ud=20211007000641 (Accessed: 17 October 2022).
Oh, S.H. and Yoo, D.M. (2019) 세계의 재생 건축 프로젝트. Design House, [online] Available at: http://mdesign.designhouse.co.kr/article/article_view/106/79653 (Accessed: 17 October 2022).