Spatial strategies for sustainable transport-oriented in city centre areas
In Mr Alan Wann’s lecture, I learnt about the definition and meaning of sustainable transport systems and studied examples of good sustainable transport systems in different cities with different models. In the context of our ongoing design project in Newcastle city centre, I have summarised strategies through reading literature and case studies on how to optimise the space in the city centre to better accommodate sustainable transport systems.
Rationalising public transport capacity
The different levels of planning and design of the public transport system should be closely integrated with the different functional areas of the city, and the layout of the site should be coordinated according to the location and scale of the hubs and stations of the different transport systems, to avoid overcrowding and wastage of facilities in the public transport system due to the incongruous development of public transport capacity and urban density.
From the perspective of land use, the use of large areas for a single function should be strictly controlled; the layout of large public buildings should take full account of the impact on the surrounding transport system. Through the improvement of green transport systems such as high-capacity public transport, road resources should be tilted towards public transport systems and green transport systems such as walking and cycling, to provide a high-quality sustainable transport system for residents of urban centres and historical and cultural conservation areas.
Optimisation of slow-moving spaces
Cycling and cycling as a zero energy consumption, convenient and pollution-free mode of transport should be an important part of the diverse green transport system. The design of the slow-moving system should, as far as possible, not mix cycle paths with footpaths. In terms of road network design, it is important to increase the density of the road network and reduce the number of exhaustive roads, creating a well-connected system of pedestrian and cycle paths. In terms of environment, urban regeneration and greening should be combined with reasonable paving, lighting and landscaping around slow-moving roads to increase the comfort of slow-moving and thus encourage slow travel.
Enhancing the diversity of street spaces
The more functions and activities that occur in a street space, the safer the neighbourhood will be and the more people will be attracted to travel sustainably. The diversity of street space is largely influenced by the size of the neighbourhood, which in turn is determined by the urban road network. Smaller neighbourhoods with narrower and denser road networks are better able to stimulate urban spatial dynamics: as neighbourhoods are small, their internal functions are limited and travel destinations are more concentrated outside the neighbourhood, trips are shifted to the urban road network. This mixed community model with a dense road network is particularly suitable for the design of facilities or public spaces in urban public spaces, around major public buildings and transport stations.
The optimisation of slow-moving systems and public transport systems in urban centres and the attraction of people to use slow-moving spaces are key strategies for the development of sustainable transport systems. The development of sustainable transport systems can achieve the goals of reducing energy consumption, controlling air pollution, promoting public health and preventing urban sprawl.
 Mabazza.D.L,Tamura T. Effects of Public Transport Improvement in the Formation of Compact Cities[J]. Journal in Urban and Regional Planning,2014,1(1):73-82.
 Salimifard K，Shahbandarzadeh H，Raeesi R. Green transportation and the role of operation research[C]//Int. Conf. Traffic Transp.Eng.(ICTTE 2012).2012,26: 74-79. Rahman MA, Ahmed H, Rafia A, etal. Development of green
 Frank L.D, PO Engelke et al. Health and Community Design: The Impact of the Built Environment on Physical Activity[M]. Island Press, Washington, D.C, 2003:243-245.
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