SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT：The nature of sustainable transport
Sustainable transport systems are also known as green transport . Green transportation refers to all modes of transport that have a low environmental impact, including walking, cycling, transit-oriented development, green vehicles, car sharing, and building and protecting urban transport systems through energy conservation, space storage, and the promotion of healthy lifestyles.
Figure-1: Trams in Melbourne, Australia
Sustainable transport systems make a positive contribution to protecting the environment and maintaining the social and economic sustainability of the communities in which they are located. The existence of transport systems promotes social and economic connectivity, and people seize the opportunity for increased mobility. The advantages of increased mobility need to be weighed against the environmental, social and economic costs of the transport system. Greenhouse gas emissions are also growing faster than other areas of energy consumption. Road transport is also a major contributor to local air pollution and smog.
Negative social impacts of transportation include road accidents, air pollution, physical inactivity, reduced family time due to commuting, and higher fuel prices. This has had a somewhat negative impact on those who do not own or drive a car. Because traffic congestion wastes people’s time and reduces the speed at which goods and services are transported, it costs the economy.
Traditional transport planning, which aims to improve mobility, especially for vehicles, does not adequately consider its wider implications. The real purpose of transportation is to make it easier for people to work, to get an education, to buy goods and services, to visit friends and relatives, and technology will make it easier, while reducing environmental and social impacts, and traffic jams will be solved. Social groups have succeeded in improving the sustainability of transport networks as part of their broader plans to create more vibrant, livable and sustainable cities.
Figure-2: Clean Mobilty Instead Of Dirty Traffic
Sustainable transport policy and management
Sustainable transport policies have a great impact on the city level. Outside Western Europe, cities that continue to make sustainable transport and land use planning an important consideration include Curitiba in Brazil, Bogota in Colombia, Portland in Oregon, and Vancouver in Canada. The state of Victoria in Australia recently passed the Transport Integration Act , which requires transport companies to proactively take sustainability issues such as climate change into account when planning transport policies and operations.Promoting sustainable transport is essentially a grassroots movement, although it is now recognised as having urban, national and international significance.While it was initially focused on addressing environmental issues, in the past few years there has been a growing emphasis on social equity and equity issues, in particular the need to ensure access to transport and services for low-income groups and persons with limited mobility, including the rapidly growing elderly population. Many people who do not own a car or cannot drive suffer from vehicle noise, pollution and safety risks, while cars also impose a significant financial burden on owner.
Figure-3: Federation of Public Transport International (UITP) Urban transport database
In the 20th century, more and more people chose to travel by car, but since 2000, the trend has become complicated. The rise in oil prices in 2003 has led to a decline in private per capita fuel use in the United States , the United Kingdom, and Australia. In 2008, global oil consumption fell by 0.8%, with significant declines in total consumption in North America, Western Europe and Asia. In 2008, global oil consumption declined by 0.8%, with significant decreases in total consumption in North America, Western Europe, and Asia. In Taiwan, the discussion of green transportation has also become a trend of policy and academic research, and the results of research in 2016 showed that the number of people using buses and MRT in Taipei City reached 57.7% in 2014, the highest in Taiwan.
Figure-4: Vehicle miles in the United States as of March 2009
The term green transportation is often used as a greenwashing product marketing technique that does not contribute positively to environmental sustainability. Such statements are subject to legal challenge. Norway’s Consumer Ombudsman, for example, targets people who claim their cars are “green”, “clean” or “environmentally friendly”. Manufacturers risk fines if they fail to follow “green” principles. The Australian Competition and Consumer Commission (ACCC) has proposed that the “green” of a product is vague and welcomes multiple definitions from consumers so as not to mislead them. In 2008, the ACCC ordered Saab car retailers to stop their green marketing, which was later ruled by the Federal Court of Australia to have misled consumers.
Figure-5:Crude Oil Price(2014 USD per barrel)
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