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Transit-Oriented Development (TOD) and Affordable Housing


Transit-oriented development (TOD) is a planning and design strategy. Which can promotes compact, mixed-use, pedestrian- and bicycle-friendly urban development that integrates jobs, housing, services, and amenities. Moreover, it is closely integrated with public transportation (‘Transforming the Urban Space Through Transit-Oriented Development: The 3V Approach’, n.d.).

Additionally, affordable housing combined with TOD can provide significant social, economic, and environmental benefits. Let’s look at the main results and implications. In this article, we will discuss the intersection of TOD and affordable housing, leveraging some strategies and best practices to promote housing inclusion in TOD.


Access to affordable housing near transport hubs is particularly important for low-income households as it reduces transport costs. Additionally, it improves access to employment and basic services and promotes social inclusion. Therefore, including affordable housing in TOD not only improves community liability, but also contributes to broader goals of social equity and economic resilience.

The Tod concept consists of integrated urban areas designed to bring together people, activities, buildings and public spaces, providing convenient walking and cycling connections between them, as well as transport services of almost the same quality as the rest of the city.

Figure 1:Mixed-income Transit-oriented development (Kalpana, 2021).

This type of development is a very popular concept with complex processes and strategies that help achieve more sustainable transport patterns, reduce emissions, and improve regional connections. While many seek proximity to transit, TOD can displace residents, reduce affordable housing, and disrupt local businesses in new transit-linked neighborhoods (Thomas & Bertolini, 2020).


Additionally, proximity to transport hubs, car ownership, and income influence household travel patterns. However, nearby parks, retail, schools, and leisure facilities can also reduce residents’ CO2 emissions significantly (Transit Oriented Development (TOD) and Affordable Housing: A Survey of Residents in Five East Bay Properties, no date).

Residents of TODs and elsewhere are more likely to walk if the destination is a park, retail store, school, or recreation area. Placing affordable housing in amenity-rich areas allows residents to access services without driving, reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Other types of destinations often require additional travel. These include driving to work, visiting friends, family, places of worship, childcare or medical care (Malagon, n.d.). Given the current pace and scale of growth in global cities, there is an urgent need to incorporate features that favor pedestrians over cars, and features that favor dynamic mixed-use buildings over single-use buildings (Shah, 2022).


  • Reduced Transportation Costs
  • Improved Access to Amenities
  • Environmental Benefits (Transit Oriented Development (TOD) and Affordable Housing, n.d.)
  • Social Equity


  • Affordable TOD housing is an effective way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and vehicle miles travelled (VMT).
  • Focus on greater accessibility and ensure that very low income and extremely low-income households can benefit from TOD development.
  • To achieve sustainable and equitable outcomes, policy makers must prioritize affordable housing within TOD.

In summary, Transit-oriented development and affordable housing can create liveable, affordable, and environmentally friendly communities. The purpose of contextual TOD is not only to help travelers. Also to explore the culture of the city by creating the culture of the city. A place where social inclusion modules are dynamic and improve social standards Infrastructure that helps people celebrate, promote and interact freely.

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School of Architecture
Planning and Landscape
Newcastle upon Tyne
Tyne and Wear, NE1 7RU

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